At 5-8 weeks a bradycardia (less than 90 bpm) is associated with a high risk of miscarriage.
Since its introduction in the late 1950s ultrasonography has become a very useful diagnostic tool in Obstetrics.
Currently used equipments are known as real-time scanners, with which a continous picture of the moving fetus can be depicted on a monitor screen.
Very high frequency sound waves of between 3.5 to 7.0 megahertz (i.e.
A full bladder is often required for the procedure when abdominal scanning is done in early pregnency.
There may be some discomfort from pressure on the full bladder.